Number Т. 9, № 4 (36) 2019

Cytological features of plasmocytoma and differential signs of Ewing’s tumor, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and glandular cancer

Bolgova L.S., Tuganova T.N., Yaroschuk T.M.

Summary. Myeloma or generalized plasmacytoma (PC) is a malignant tumor of plasma cells in which damage to the bone marrow and bone system predominates. This neoplasm is characterized by clonal proliferation of plasmocytes, which is determined in the presence of their typical cytological signs. However, the different degree of differentiation and lysis of tumor plasma cells causes significant difficulties in their identification and, in some cases, allows only to establish a malignant round small cell tumor, and not to establish PC. The aim is to present different cytomorphological characteristics of cytogram variants of PC to improve their cytological diagnosis. Results. We studied cytological preparations stained by the Pappenheim method, obtained by puncture biopsies of 22 patients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis — PC. All observations were verified by histological method. Studies of PC cytograms presented in the form of characteristic microphotographs revealed their varieties were depending on the degree of tumor cell polymorphism and dystrophic changes. The differential diagnosis of PC and other small-cell malignant tumors — Ewing’s tumor, small-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and glandular cancer was described. Conclusions. The main guidelines for the cytological diagnosis of PC were: basophilic fine-grained cytoplasm or its fragments, a typical clumpy structure of nuclear chromatin, located mainly on the periphery of the nucleus, forming a «wheel» shape, which can be traced at least in a small part of the nuclei.
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