The role of targeted therapy in the treatment of patients with EGFR+ mutations of lung cancer (review)

Колесник А.П. , Шевченко А.И., Каджоян А.В., Кузьменко В.А., Kabakov A.O.

Summary. An important problem in oncology is the treatment of patients with III–IV stage of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The relevance of the issue is related to the fact that more than half of NSCLC patients have IIIB (22.0%) or IV stage of the disease (32.0%). The main goals of treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC are raising of survival and improving of the life quality. Therapy of metastatic lung cancer in the beginning of the XX century started with unsatisfactory results. In most studies, the median survival was 4 to 6 months, overall survival was 10.0 to 15.0%. But since the 2000s, the era of targeted therapy began and in the last decade it has taken a dominant place in scientific research. And now, in 2018, according to the NCCN 2018 and ESMO 2017 definition of driver mutations is the first step in choosing the optimal treatment strategy. One of the most common mutations in the world (primarily in North America and Asia) in patients with lung cancer is the EGFR mutation. In patients with EGFR mutations, the response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is 70–100%, and in their absence, 0–30%. So, there are three generations of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors: the first is erlotinib and gefitinib, the second — afatinib and the third — osimertinib.
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