Radiation therapy of the XXI century
Summary. Cancers continue to occupy the first line in the list of causes of morbidity and mortality, and, as in the economically developed and developing countries. WHO estimates one in five of dying on the planet is dying of cancer. According to forecasts of mortality from cancer is threatening and tends to increase in 2020 may exceed the total deaths from tuberculosis, malaria and HIV. Radiation therapy is one of the main methods of cancer treatment, and is used in almost any stage as a component of a combined, independent, integrated, palliative treatment. At the same time, in certain stages of the disease localization and radiation therapy may be an alternative to surgical treatment. Historically, the use of ionizing radiation in medicine has passed different stages, starting with the discovery of X-rays by W. Roentgen and their use in patients with breast cancer. During the XIX–XX centuries, developed medical technology, both for pre-radiation preparation, as well as directly to the radiotherapy. Since the early ‘60s to replace the radiotherapeutic technique came gamma-ray therapy remote machines, accelerators, and created by X-ray computed tomography simulator. Now it is accelerator complexes multileaf collimators with the likely conduct of conformal irradiation intensity modulated radiation beam and visual control. This technology means at the appropriate implementation of the program of quality assurance of radiotherapy has given the opportunity to dramatically increase its efficiency.
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