Photodynamic therapy in clinical oncology

Dunaevskaya V.V.1, Tzerkovsky D.A.2, Tatarchuk T.F.1, Goncharuk I.V.3

Summary. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a method of treatment based on the combined use of photosensitizers and laser radiation with a specific wavelength. According to the data of numerous clinical, including randomized studies, conducted in leading scientific and practical centers in Europe, Asia and the United States, this method of treatment has demonstrated good tolerance and high antitumor efficacy in the treatment of a number of precancerous diseases and malignant neoplasms. In the publication, the authors have systematized the key aspects of the PDT application in clinical oncology, namely, the classification of the most used photosensitizing agents and their derivatives has been considered; the main sources of laser radiation and the leading mechanisms of the antitumor response to photoirradiation of pathologically altered tissues have been presented; the main indications and contraindications for use in clinical oncology have been studied. The second part of the article analyzes the existing world experience of PDT application in the treatment of precancerous diseases of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, vulva and cervix, as well as malignant neoplasms of the skin, lung, esophagus, pancreas and prostate glands, malignant gliomas of the brain. The PDT method is an effective alternative to traditional approaches in the treatment of these diseases, and can be used both independently and in the schemes of combined and complex treatment. Having significant advantages, such as low toxicity to surrounding normal tissues, minimal risk of severe pain syndrome, lack of mechanisms of primary and acquired resistance, the possibility of outpatient treatment, the possibility of combination with other methods of treatment, the absence of limiting cumulative doses of PS and laser radiation, ease of use with multiple lesions, good cosmetic results and the possibility of implementing organ-preserving methods of treatment, PDT is a relevant and promising area of further research.

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