The detection of tumor cells in the unchanged parenchyma — is a reliable sign of the spread of lung cancer

Bolhova L. 1, Ponomarenko A.2, Hanul V. 1

Summary. The well-known high incidence of lung cancer (LC), unfavorable clinical course, and low effectiveness of treatment pose comprehensive tasks for researchers, which would contribute to determining the causes of occurrence, histogenesis, and morphological features of the growth and spread of this pathological process. The aim. Determine the presence of cancer cells in the unchanged lung parenchyma at different distances from the removed tumor on the surgical material. Materials and methods. Scrapings from sections of unchanged lung parenchyma near the peripheral edge of the removed cancerous tumor of various histological types (14 patients) were studied, at a distance of 2 cm and 5 cm. Quantitative studies were conducted. Pappenheim and Papanicolaou staining methods were used, and immunocytochemical reactions with Cytokeratin-7 and Napsin A monoclonals were performed. Research results and conclusions. Tumor cells were identified in all examined zones of unchanged parenchyma in three histological types of LC. A new approach was used in obtaining the research material from a large area of the parenchyma by scraping from the surface of its sections at different distances from the peripheral edge of the removed tumors and quantitative assessment using the cytological method. The studied group of mixed type of LC — glandular-squamous cells, which made up 36%. The presence of such a variant of LC may indicate a common source of the development of glandular and squamous types of LC. The results of the conducted studies testify to the wide distribution of cancer cells in the unchanged parenchyma near and at a considerable distance from the removed cancerous tumor, which substantiates the unfavorable course of the disease and poor prognosis known to oncologists of the world and poses new tasks — the study of histogenesis, effective treatment, and prevention of LC.

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