Morphological studies in determining the histogenesis of lung cancer

Bolhova L.S., Tuganova T.M., Alekseenko O.I.

Summary. Introduction. A large volume of literature devoted to determining the source of lung cancer development did not allow scientists to come to an agreed consensus, which requires further research on this issue. The well-known multifaceted literature related to the issue of histogenesis of LC made it possible to reveal knotty issues. Thus, it was established that the structure of the lung in the central part is similar to that in the peripheral parts. The stem cell of the lung, which includes type II pneumocytes (alveolocytes) — ATII, was identified. Numerous researchers using experimental models found that the place of transition of the basal cells of the bronchial epithelium into the alveolar one is the most vulnerable and it is here that reactive hyperplastic changes of the epithelium develop in the event of exposure to toxic substances. But until now, the structural morphological signs of the beginning of development and growth of LC have not been revealed. The purpose of the research is to substantiate the single source of development and characteristic structure of lung cancer growth. Research material and methods. Exfoliative cytological diagnosis was carried out in 807 patients, histological studies were carried out on the operative material of 120 patients. Staining of cytological preparations was carried out according to the method of Papanikolaou and Pappenheim, histological — with hematoxylin and eosin, according to Papanikolaou and according to W. Howell, D. Black. Research results. Macroscopic, morphometric, histological, immunohistochemical and cytological studies were carried out, which made it possible to determine the nature of the growth of LC, which originates from the cells of the alveolar epithelium and grows to its center. The detected direction of growth is confirmed by a number of morphological and immunohistochemical signs of cell changes and the disintegration of LC in the center of the alveolus, which corresponds to the generally recognized morphogenesis of a cancer tumor. Conclusion. We demonstrate the established beginning of growth and its prolongation in the alveoli, which can be considered a proven fact of the single source of development and the directed nature of the growth of LC.

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