The role of microRNA in the individualization of treatment of breast cancer patients
Резюме. It is known that not only genetic and epigenetic factors play a certain role in the development of cancer but they can generate phenotypic changes and promote tumor growth. The recent data in molecular biology testify that changes in the expression microRNA considered to be one of the epigenetic mechanisms which are involved in the initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer. The discovery of small non-coding specific molecules — microRNA (microRNA, miRNA, miR) has played a crucial role in the perception of the molecular mechanisms of gene expression regulation and it has been a significant event in recent years. After the first characteristic miRNA signature for breast cancer in the 2005 year, there were many investigations of miRNA and it was proved the difference in the expression of microRNA in malignant cells compared with normal tissues. Based on the analysis of world literature the article shows the biological and clinical role of microRNAs in the pathogenesis and drug resistance in breast cancer. Also there is the association of specific miRNA expression profiles with clinical course of the disease, molecular genetic subtypes of breast cancer, as well as the response to chemotherapy and hormone therapy. The key microRNAs promising for diagnosis, forecast assessment and response to drug therapy are analyzed.
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